Generic JavaScript Types

JavaScript is a dynamically-typed language which offers powerful yet easy-to-use typing system. This however imposes responsibility to track the types of your variables passed to Verge3D API methods. Misusing types might lead to complicated issues, so be careful and always consult with the Verge3D docs in case of any doubts.


Any type. There is no such type in JavaScript — this virtual type is used in Verge3D only for documentation purposes.


Buffer which stores arbitrary binary data. The content of this buffer is accessible via TypedArray.

const buffer = new ArrayBuffer(8); const view = new Uint16Array(buffer); // 4 16-bit zeros


JavaScript Array value:

const numArray = [1, 2, 3, 4]; const strArray = ['A', 'B', 'C']; const emptyArray = [];


Boolean value, either true or false. Using other data types to represent boolean values, such as '' (empty string), 1 (one), 0 (zero), null is not recommended.


Verge3D constant which is accessible from the v3d namespace, e.g: v3d.ESMShadowMap, v3d.RGBAFormat, v3d.MOUSE.LEFT, etc. All Verge3D constants are described in the corresponding sections of this reference.


Float value such as 3.14, -5.0, or 1e6 (a million). For some Verge3D API methods or properties, you can also use the Infinity and -Infinity values.


JavaScript function. In the context of Verge3D API, this means you need to pass some pre-defined callback function as parameter to an API method or define some event handler.

function myCallback1(param) { // code goes here } const myCallback2 = function(param) { // code goes here } const myCallback3 = (param) => { // code goes here }


HTML <canvas> element.


HTML element of any type.


HTML image (<img>) element.


HTML image (<img>) element.


Represents an image bitmap.


Integer value such as 10, 290, -1, or 0xff0000 (hex value for color red).

In JavaScript there is no specific data type for integers, so difference between floats and integers is purely logical. In the essence, 10 is same as 10.0, but in Verge3D context these are different types.


JavaScript null object. In most cases this means that the data is not available or is empty.


JavaScript object. In most cases this means you need to use the dictionary-like datatype:

const myObj = { name: 'John Smith', age: 40 }

When using spaces or other non-alphanumeric characters for keys, put them in quotes or double quotes:

const myObj = { 'person name': 'John Smith', 'age#': 40 }


String value, such as 'Hello World!'. You can also use the double quotation marks to represent strings, e.g "Hello World!".


JavaScript this value. In most cases, we use this to describe methods which return the reference to the same class instance. This allows such methods to be chained, e.g:

// [0, 0, 0] → [10, 0, 0] → [11, 1, 1] → [6, 0, 0] new v3d.Vector3().setX(10).addScalar(1).sub(new v3d.Vector3(5, 1, 1));

By definition, all constructors return this value, so we don't mention it in the reference.


JavaScript typed array value:

const array1 = new Uint32Array([1,2,3]); // three unsigned 32 bit integers const array2 = new Float32Array(1000); // 1000 zeros, floats with 32 bit precision

The following types are the most frequently used in Verge3D:

Type Usage
Float32Array Positions, normals, UVs, animations.
Uint8Array Index buffers for small meshes.
Uint16Array Index buffers for medium meshes.
Uint32Array Index buffers for large meshes.


JavaScript undefined type. As implied by the name, a variable, property, or a function parameter is not defined. Also, JavaScript functions which do not return any values have undefined as their return value.